Jazz Guitar Scales


Lesson on Diagonal Playing

Ok, so you know about Jazz guitar scales a little (or a lot). You've heard about scale positions on the guitar or the CAGED system... You may be a complete master of scales on the guitar already ... or perhaps you're just a total beginner.

No matter where you stand, here's something for you: a new perspective!

I now offer you this "other solution" for smooth phrasing and bebop melodic lines on the guitar (for Jazz improvisation.) This approach is largely underrated and little known (I think), yet it yields enormous potential ...

... and it works for many jazz guitar greats, for me and most of my students!! I'm sure you find it interesting.

Ready?!


The "Secret" Jazz Guitar Scales

The #1 secret for amazing linear jazz guitar phrasing in your improvised solos :

Play up-and-across-the-neck (AKA "diagonal" playing!)

It's in fact a blend between single string (horizontal) and position (vertical) playing concepts. Here's how it works :

jazz guitar scales diagonal

So the term "diagonal" merely means to play up AND across the neck at the same time. It is done by playing 3 or 4 notes on each string while shifting up (or down) the fingerboard.

Check out the line I'm playing in the first 10 seconds video. I learned it directly from a Wes Montgomery solo on the blues in F. Do you see the diagonal motion of my LH ?

This approach to playing jazz guitar scales
personally changed my hearing over the
years. It is a powerful yet underestimated tool.


Why?

Dig this : Most instrument have only "one way" to play a certain scale. If you play C major scale ascending on a piano for instance, you'll use fingers 123 - 1234 then use the same fingers on the next octave.

Which means that on the piano, you use the same physical motion to produce the same sound, in every register of the instrument. "Do-re-mi" on the low keys can be executed with the same muscles/movements on the highest keys.

Now try this on the guitar: C major in seventh position. The LH fingerings are : 24 124 13 ... then the next octave: 4 234 24 1 (2)

And you wonder why it's hard to learn and memorize fingerings for scales and arpeggios on the guitar!?! It's chaos!

Diagonal scales on the guitar allow the kind of "piano fingerings" evenness we are looking for on the fretboard. You'll find yourself using the same fingerings on 2 or even 3 different octaves. Start practicing them and you'll hear/see what I mean.


Comparison / Explanation

Here are the "nuts and bolts" of Jazz guitar scale diagonal playing, as a comparison in point-form:

Position playing characteristics...

  • Restrict the left hand: doesn't move up/down the neck while playing
  • Learn the same scale in many different positions (boxes)
  • Each note in the scale can be played in many locations
  • Usually, 2-3 notes on each string
  • Also implies: if you know every (12) major scale in 7 positions, it means that you can stay in one position and play in 7 major keys.

Diagonal playing characteristics...

  • Free the left hand: now it does move up/down the fretboard
  • Learn any scale in one specific way, diagonally
  • Each note of the scale is played in only one location
  • Usually, 3-4 notes (or more) on each string (may require shifting)
  • Also implies: you know every (12) major scales in one specific way and you're less likely to forget the fingerings...

The main advantages of this scalar diagonal approach :

1. Wider range it covers
Position playing gives about 2 octaves while diagonal goes up to 3 octaves (perhaps more, if you know where to look!)

2. Evenness of phrasing
Fingerings repeat themselves on each octave.
Every note has only one exact location.
Guitarists can "play by sound and feel" rather than "by finger".

Other areas of jazz guitar playing (and jazz guitar scales) also helped by diagonal playing :

-Knowledge of fretboard
-Speed/virtuosity
-Reading (only one location for each note!)
-Better LH technique
-Better "finger to ears" relationship
-Easy (very easy) octave transposition
-Ease of learning/memorizing scales and modes
-Range of melodic lines (above 2 octaves)
-Playing in octaves (like Wes)

And finally, before we start... (my fifty cents)

Honestly, I still don't understand why this approach to jazz guitar scales is not more widely discussed and taught. The vast majority of jazz guitarists I know (students of mine, colleagues, teachers, etc.) know and rave about positions playing (and/or the CAGED system) but barely even mention the diagonal approach (if they know about it at all) ...

It's funny though : most influential jazz guitar legends (of past and present times) mix and match single string, positions and diagonal concepts in their solos...

Ready for Jazz guitar scales exercises now? Let's go!


Major Scale played Diagonally

The keys of G and C are used as models here : We clearly "see" the diagonal motion starting on 5th and 6th strings.

jazz guitar scales

Note : Start the scales with fingers 1-2-4 (NOT fingers 1-3-4)


Some Guidelines

#1 - Stretch Between Middle and Ring Fingers

Stretch between first and second fingers. Don't move the entire hand, "reach out" with the index while the left hand stays.

#2 - Shift with Index

The shifts are performed with the first finger between half-steps.

#3 - Break the Rules

In other scales/modes you may have to stretch between third and fourth fingers and/or to shift with the fourth finger.

-In General-

It's all about the hand "staying" while the outside (1st and 4th) fingers "stretching" and "shifting". Experiment and you will find your way of doing it comfortably.


Melodic Minor Scale played Diagonally

The same principles apply in minor. Try the melodic minor scale fingerings below. Use fingers 1-2-3 on the lowest string so you are still stretching between first and second fingers.

The keys of G and C are used as models here : We clearly "see" the diagonal motion starting on 5th and 6th strings.

jazz guitar scales

Note : Start the scales with fingers 1-2-3 (NOT fingers 1-3-4)



Suggested Exercises for Jazz Guitar Scales in Diagonal

  • Learn C and G major really well in diagonal (2 octaves)
  • (shown exactly in diagrams above)
  • Do the same with C and G melodic minor.

Using the same fingering from C major diagonal (above) play ...

  • Bb, B, C, Db, D and Eb and E major scales.
  • (simply move the hand up or down to the good starting note and employ the *exact-same-fingering*)

Using the same fingering from G major diagonal play...

  • F, Gb, G, Ab, A, Bb and B major scales.
  • (simply move the hand up or down to the good starting note and employ the *exact-same-fingering*)

The two previous exercises made you play the major scale in 12 keys. You have two options for Bb and B major, starting on 5th or 6th string. Isn't that great, that you can now play in twelve keys just by quickly learning 2 diagonal fingerings for Jazz guitar scales?! :-)

Optionnaly: Apply the above to find the melodic minor scale in 12 keys.

Learn other scales/modes for tunes your are improvising on diagonally on 2-3 octaves. Refer to 14 Diagonal Scales In C (PDF) to find fingerings or to get inspiration (different ways of solving the fingering issues.)


Diagonal Jazz Guitar Scales: Wrap Up

As you can begin to "feel" the diagonal scales under your fingers you will develop hearing instincts. When assimilated those jazz guitar scales help in developing a natural and instinctive improvisational voice.

The hearing part of it comes mostly from the sameness of fingerings on each octave. Did you notice, it's like the piano? After the octave, you have to "push the sames buttons to hear the same sound"?

Practice enough so they become second nature to you. You will want to rely on this material spontaneously. It's the same as learning to drive: you learn all the notions and they become "reflexes" after practicing.

Lastly, this way of playing jazz guitar scales is unique and "upgradeable". Apply the diagonal principles to others scales, arpeggios, song themes, composition, while transcribing, etc. For instance, see the "Bebop Modes" jazz guitar scales video here...

Make the fingering concept your own and explore new ideas!